OECD (2011), Against the Odds: Disadvantage Students Who Succeed in School, OECD Publications.
Portugal is one of the OECD countries that has a higher proportion of resilient students, although their proficiency levels tend to be low.
 The report uses two measures of resilience: “Both definitions share the same approach to socio-economic disadvantaged: they focus on the context closest to the student and the educational system they experience. The key differenc
e is on performance: the first approach focuses on an international benchmark whereas the second uses a country-specific one.” (OECD, 2011:23)